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List of frequently asked questions

Has the data from 2016 been certified by OECD?
The data from 2016 has been certified by OECD.

Why isn't the data updated to 2017?
Open Aid data are only those already reported by Italy and officially published on the OECD website, after an accurate check of consistency. Such data are usually made available in the second half of the following year.

Where does the data come from?
ODA keeps track of the official transactions, undertaken by central, state or local government agencies and aimed to achieve economic growth and social well-being in Developing Countries (DCs). The Creditor Reporting System (CRS) groups public funders as follows:
• AGEA: Italian Rural Payments Agency;
• DGCS: Directorate General for Development Cooperation of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs;
• CA (Central Administration): all bodies of the Italian central administration;
• LA (Local Administration): all Italian local authorities (regions, provinces, municipalities);
• Art (Artigiancassa-MEF): managing body of the soft loans granted to developing countries on behalf of the Italian Ministry of Economy and Finance;
• SACE - (SACE SpA - Insurance Services for Foreign Trade): publicly owned company that provides services to companies and banks in the international market (credit insurance, investment protection, guarantee policies, etc.).

To which extent is the data reliable?
The Creditor Reporting System (CRS), established by the OECD in 1967, has been amended several times with the introduction of new indicators and some significant changes (the last one in 2010). Consequently, an automatic recodification of previous data has been made and, given the large amount of data, such realignment is still in progress.

What do we mean by Bilateral and Multi-bilateral Official Development Assistance?
Bilateral transactions are those undertaken by a donor country directly with a developing country. They also encompass transactions with non-governmental organizations active in development and other, internal development-related transactions such as interest subsidies, spending on promotion of development awareness, debt reorganization and administrative costs.

What do we mean by Multilateral Official Development Assistance?
These funds are classified as multilateral ODA (all other categories fall under bilateral ODA). The recipient multilateral institution pools contributions so that they lose their identity and become an integral part of its financial assets.

What do we mean by Official Development Assistance (ODA)?
Official Development Assistance (ODA) is defined as those flows to developing countries and multilateral institutions provided by official agencies, including state and local governments, or by their executive agencies, each transaction of which meets the following tests: i) it is administered with the promotion of the economic development and welfare of developing countries as its main objective; and ii) it is concessional in character and conveys a grant element of at least 25 per cent.

What is untied aid?
Untied aid is defined as grants and soft loans used for the acquisition of goods and services from all OECD countries and from all the countries in the developing world. As a result of the various conferences on aid effectiveness (Paris, Accra and Busan), it has been strongly recommended that the money should not be spent on goods or services produced only by the donor country.

What's an international organization?
It is an international agency, institution or organization whose members are governments. When managed by such bodies, also some Funds aimed at the implementation of programs agreed in international fora can be considered international organizations (e.g. the Global Fund for HIV / AIDS). International organisms, which by statute carry out activities that are wholly or partly aimed to the benefit of DCs may receive contributions qualified as Official Development Aid.