The Italian Development Cooperation - Historical series
Aid during the time
The variation of resources committed and paid for Bilateral and Multi-bilateral development aid
Aid in numbers
Bilateral and Multi-bilateral
Italian development projects
Total funding committed
Total funding used
What is it spent for?
The purpose/sector of destination of a bilateral contribution should be selected by answering the question “which specific area of the recipient’s economic or social structure is the transfer intended to foster”. The sector classification does not refer to the type of goods or services provided by the donor. Sector specific education or research activities (e.g. agricultural education) or construction of infrastructure (e.g. agricultural storage) should be reported under the sector to which they are directed, not under education, construction, etc. read more close
By means of?
The typology identifies the modalities that are used in aid delivery. It classifies transfers from the donor to the first recipient of funds (e.g. the recipient country, a multilateral organisation, or a basket fund). It does not track the end uses of the funds, which is addressed in the sector classification and to some extent through the policy objective markers. read more close
The extending agency is the government entity (central, state or local government agency or department) financing the activity from its own budget. It is the budget holder, controlling the activity on its own account. Agencies administering activities on behalf of other government entities should not be reported as extending agencies but as channels of delivery. read more close
Italian development aid in brief
1. Background and main reasons for the presence of Italian Cooperation
In consideration of recent political changes and the historical ties between Italy and the Horn of Africa, the 2013-2015 guidelines for Italian Development Cooperation confirmed the priority country status for Somalia, recipient of almost 270 million Euros of grants in the last 20 years.
Throughout 2012, the international community agenda for Somalia underwent significant changes: 2011 had been marked by the drought emergence and the humanitarian concerns due to the ongoing conflict while thanks to the London, Istanbul and Rome conferences and the summit on Somalia held in New York last year, priority has been finally given to issues such as reconstruction, institution and capacity building.
With the end of the transitional period (august 2012), Somali authorities (FGS – Federal Government of Somalia) appealed to all the donors (including Italy) in order to resume more direct cooperation relations through bilateral programmes and also direct budget support. The overall international community strategy to support the new somali authourities has been discussed in particular at the London Conference of may 7th 2013, which saw the participation of the Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Emma Bonino, and new important events are upcoming, in Brussels and New York.
The italian development cooperation strategy towards Somalia has been based until now on a 3-directions approach: support to the population (through emergency programmes or concentrated on health and food security sectors); support to the federal institutions, with capacity building programmes and reconstruction projects; advocacy with the international community, both at bilateral level and at European Union and other international organizations level. This strategy, mainly implemented through the multilateral channel, aims at concretely helping the switch from emergency interventions to medium-term programmes.
2. Other international donors, coordination and opportunities of division of labor, joint evaluation exercises (Harmonization)
Coordination for international Support for Somalia (CISS) is the reference coordination structure for the United Nations, World Bank, international and somali NGOs represented in the NGO Consortium. The co- chairs are the UN Resident Coordinator / High Commissioner (UNRC/HC) and the World Bank.
The main issues debated are the coordination reform – started in 2009 – and the revision of strategies and country planning documents (UNTP, RDP and JSP). CISS is assisted by the Somalia Support Secretariat (SSS), divided in five sectors (governance, education, health & nutrition, water & sanitation, food security & rural development). However, its role seems to be slowly fading while losing support by the donors community. Since the end of the transitional period, CISS was convened very seldom.
The Somali Donor Group (SDG) meets monthly in Nairobi. Created in 2005 with the objective of defining a common approach to the improvement of coordination and aid effectiveness in somalia, it still represents the donors community within CISS. It is composed by several representatives from the embassies - Australia, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Italy, Norway, Czech Republic, Spain, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey – and from development agencies and banks – EU, Dfid, USAID, World Bank, IGAD, African Development Bank.
In 2012 some proposals were made in order to change coordination within donors, through the creation of new groups. The Strategic Coordination Group (SCG) was born as a smaller forum for the coordination of donors in the cooperation and political sectors. It should act as the internation community interface to the Somali authorities. The Somalia Partnership Forum, on the other side, by UNPOS initiative, should be a broader group, comprising all the stakeholders, even “non traditional donors”, such as Turkey and the Gulf countries.
Following the 4th Forum on Aid Effectiveness of Novembre, 29th 2011, held in Busan, in Korea, Somalia adhered to the New Deal for Engagement in Fragile States (New Deal). The New Deal is a process, led by the involved Government, aiming at guiding peacebuilding and state building and reforming the strategy of aid supply to fragile states.
Countries and/or organizations which have expressed their interest in supporting the process are the European Union, United States, Great Britain, Norway, World Bank and United Nations, that are assisting Somali authorities in the preparation of a “Fragility assessment” for developing a national development strategy, financed by the donors’ contributions (“paradigm shift”).
3. Other expressions of the Italian Cooperation System in the country (NGOs, universities, local authorities, private sector) and strategies for their involvement
Ties between civil society in our country and Somalia remain strong, also thanks to the diaspora contribution and its historical presence in Italy.
While not benefiting from direct contributions by the DGCS, the presence of Italian NGOs has traditionally been particularly important; among them, CESVI, CISP, INTERSOS, CEFA, COOPI and People like Us (operating in Hargeisa).
It is significant, in particular, the presence in the health sector, humanitarian assistance and gender empowerment, but there are also initiatives in the university and culture sector.
As for the Universities, Roma Tre and La Sapienza-Cirps collaborate with the DGCS in education-cultural programs, also with the use of web platforms.
Among local authorities, the Province of Trento has been active in the past decade with a project of basic and professional training.
4. General objectives of the Italian cooperation in the country, sharing with counterparts and consistency with international guidelines on aid effectiveness
On the occasion of the visit to Mogadishu made by Italian former Minister of Foreign Affairs, Giulio Terzi, on October 23rd, 2012, President Hassan Sheik Mohamud made a request to resume direct cooperation relations, through bilateral initiatives, to be implemented through NGOs or through an assistance budget program, with technical support from Italian experts in the planning and control stages.
Relations with Somali authorities got closer, also strengthened by the high-level meetings and major international conferences on the development of Somalia (the Conferences of London, Istanbul, Rome and the mini-summit in New York). However, there are still many difficulties related to the fragility of young local institutions and even critical security conditions in the country.
In order to coordinate international aid, the new government has created an Inter-Ministerial Secretariat (IMS), headed by the Prime Minister. The Somali government, however, still supports external coordination mechanisms between international donors.
The italian cooperation intends to promote greater involvement of Somali Authorities in the definition of objectives and priority actions, with a view to increasing ownership of local development instances. The support provided by Italy to the zones of stability will still be in line with the international cooperation "New Deal" in "fragile states", adopted in Busan, and will rely on stabilization measures drafted by IGAD and the Federal Government of Somalia.
The long term reconstruction and economic development in Somalia will also depend on private sector recovery, which could benefit from donors’ aid Diaspora’s help, particularly in the livestock and fisheries sectors. The stability has been identified as a pre-requisite for most of sustainable investments in infrastructure (power grid, roads, aqueducts).
5. Sectors of intervention and expected results
Twenty interventions in Somalia in 2012, funded by the Italian Development Cooperation for a total of about 25 million Euros; of these, about 19 million Euros were disbursed during the year (including the funds referred to Novation Agreement) while the rest of funds were allocated in previous years.
An analysis by sector of intervention shows how the Italian commitment is wide-ranging, ensuring coverage of various sectors, such as the coordination of the emergency, malnutrition and food security, mine clearance and assistance to displaced persons with a increasing attention on the reconstruction of the country (with healthcare and economic development).
In order to meet the requests received from Somali Authorities, the Italian Cooperation has identified some areas and priority actions which, already in the first months of 2013, have been promoted.
First, it has been expressed to the Somali Authorities willingness to evaluate an intervention to support the state budget. In this context, a training course in Italy for Somali officers from the financial administration bodies is in preparation: its organization will be entrusted to the Upper School of Economics and Finance "E. Vanoni", and it will be aimed at improving the skills in the preparation, management, supervision and control of the state budget. The italian cooperation is also considering an intervention in the judicial field .
In the health sector, the Italian commitment was confirmed by two initiatives entrusted to UNOPS, for a total value of 11.8 million euro, identified as part of the funds covered by the Novation Agreement of the Commodity Aid, signed by former Minister of Foreign Affairs, Franco Frattini, on September 21, 2011, to finance the rehabilitation of hospitals in Mogadishu, Somaliland and Puntland, in addition to the rehabilitation of airports in Garowe and Bossaso. These projects also proved the importance of collaboration with the Italian NGOs operating locally.
Somalia can continue benefiting from the funds of the International Missions Decree, which amount in 2013 to 4 million euro. They are intended, among other things, for multilateral interventions aimed at the creation of an Authority for the licensing of Fisheries (FAO), assistance to refugees (UNHCR) and a program for Somali women (IOM).